Amritesh singh Thakur
Reference – https://www.isro.gov.in/chandrayaan2-home-0
21st July 2019 was the 50th anniversary of humanity`s moon landing, the day on which Neil Armstrong became the first human to step on the moon. Day before yesterday on 22nd July 2019 Indian Space Research Research Organisation (ISRO) has launched the historic Chndrayaan -2 Mission which make India the first country to conduct a soft landing on moon south polar region surface and fourth country to landed on moon. After this mission India will be first in the space race to reach the South Pole of the Moon.
From this article I will like to explain the various details of Chandrayaan 2 , importance of this mission and its objectives.
The moon is the closest cosmic body at which space discovery can be attempt and documented. It is also a promising test bed to demonstrate technologies required for deep space mission. Chandrayaan 2 attempts to foster a new age of discoveries, increase our understanding of space, stimulate the advancement of technology, promote global Alliance and inspire a future generation of explorers and scientist.
Everyone is curious to know about the presence of water on moon. The temperature of moon surface is 125 °C when sunlight falls on it which can evaporate all the water in form of vapour from Moon surface and as we all know that moon has no atmosphere so all the vapours get dispersed in the space. When sunlight not fall on moon surface temperature can varies to -173°C and in liquid water exist in 0 to 100 °C.
From 1960’s many scientist believes that water exists in form of ice in the shadow region of craters(holes of moon) and on that craters sunlights are less likely to fall and temperature can varies to 0° C at this craters so there are certain possibility of existence of water in form of ice.
Chandrayaan 1 mission in 2008 prove all this theories of existence of water on moon by detecting water molecule on moon surface.
The Chandrayaan 1 (MIP – ISRO) was a moon impact probe which contain various sensors and it was crash landed on moon surface and it detected water molecules in 140 small craters. After this mission various scientist believe that 1.3 trillion pound of ice can exist on moon in in various shadow craters.
In 2013 NASA launched LRO(lunar reconnaissance orbiter) which detected a crater at south pole surface of moon and named it as Shackelton crater. The Chandrayaan 1 was crash landed near this shackleton crater and prove that this crater contain 22 % of ice in it.
Many mission till now like Chandrayaan 1 and LRO(NASA) all were orbital mission they Orbit around the moon and analyse its surface but this Chandrayaan 2 is very special mission because it will attempt to softland of lander Vikram and rover- Pragyan in a high plain between two craters at South Pole and it will make India the first country in space race to reach South Pole of moon.
Launcher and the spacecraft –
The GSLV MK-lll is India’s most powerful launcher to date ,carry Chandrayaan 2 to its designated orbit. And this satellite launch vehicle is capable of launching 4 -ton class of satellite to the Geosynchronous transfer Orbit (GTO).
The Chandrayaan 2 consists of 3 parts
(Orbital ) – weight 2,379 kg and have 1000w electric power generation capability , at the time of launch the Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter will be capable of communicating with Indian deep space network (IDSN) as well as the lander (Vikram).The mission life of the Orbital is one year and it will be placed is a 100×100 km lunar polar orbit.
(Lander – Vikram) – weight 1471 kg
The Lander of Chandrayaan 2 is named Vikram after doctor Vikram Sarabhai, the father of the Indian space programme. It is designed to function for one lunar day which will equivalent to about 14 earth Day. Vikram has the capability to communicate with IDSN at Byalalu near Bangalore, as well as with the Orbiter and Rover. The lander is designed to execute a soft landing on lunar surface.
(Rover – Pragyan) – weight 27kg
Chandrayaan 2`s Rover is a 6 volt robotic vehicle named Pragyan, which translate to word ‘wisdom’ in Sanskrit. It can travel up to 500 m (1.2 km) and leverage solar energy for its functioning. It can only communicate with the lander.
If mission will proceed as per it decided by team ISRO then the touch down date of Lander on moon will be 17 September 2019.
Timeline of mission – this mission was approved on 18 September 2008 by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. This mission was first decided to done in collaboration with Russian space Association but Russian space agency delayed the mission many time and at last they take their step back then Indian space research organisation decided to design and execute complete mission by themselves.
Objective of mission- To land on South Pole surface of moon, map out the surface, to create 3D map of surface, analyse topography and death of lunar soil in discover the presence of minerals and ice on moon surface.
From all the studies scientist will get more ideas of origin of solar system formation and evolution of moon and many more.
This mission is so important because it is a very difficult mission and to establish a permanent base on moon for astronauts water is essential , water helps astronauts in drinking for growing crops and in fuel cells. India has also planned a gaganyaan mission in 2021 to send human first time in Moon from India and to establish Colony(base)
This Chandrayaan 2 Mission is worth of 978 crore. Hope this mission will be a successful one.
Thank you for reading this article. I have skipped many details for more information visit ISRO site .And must watch this animated version of Chandrayaan 2 Mission – ( https://youtu.be/hQ62htM7YoA )